Research and reference books used in creating Growing Writers, as of April 2021
Archer, Anita, and Hughes, Charles A. (2011). Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Bear, Donald R., Marcia Invernizzi, Shane Templeton, and Francine Johnston (2008). Words Their Way: Word Study for Phonics, Vocabulary, and Spelling Instruction (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Coker, David L. and Ritchey, Kristin D. (2015). Teaching Beginning Writers. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York NY: HarperCollins.
De Bruyckere, Pedro, Paul A. Kirschner, and Casper D. Hulshof (2015). Urban Myths About Learning and Education. London, San Diego, Waltham, MA. And Oxford, UK: Elsevier Academic Press.
Dirksen, Julie (2016). Design for How People Learn (2nd edition). New Riders, an imprint of Peachpit, a division of Pearson Education. www.newriders.com
Engelmann, Siegfried (1997). Preventing Failure in the Primary Grades. Eugene, OR: Association for Direct Instruction.
Engelmann, Siegfried (2006). Language for Writing. Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Engelmann, Siegfried, and Carnine, Douglas (1991). Theory of Instruction: Principles and Applications (2nd edition). Eugene, OR: Association for Direct Instruction.
Goeke, Jennifer L. (2009). Explicit Instruction: A Framework for Meaningful Direct Teaching. Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Education.
Graham, Steve, Charles A. MacArthur, , and Jill Fitzgerald, editors (2013). Best Practices in Writing Instruction (2nd edition). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Harris, Karen, Steve Graham, Linda H. Mason, and Barbara Friedlander (2008). Powerful Writing Strategies for All Students. Baltimore MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Hattie, John (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hattie, John (2012). Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning. New York, NY: Routledge.
Hochman, Judith C., and Wexler, Natalie (2017). The Writing Revolution: A guide to advancing thinking through writing in all subjects and grades. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Hollingsworth, John, and Ybarra, Silvia (2009). Explicit Direct Instruction: The Power of the Well-Crafted, Well-Taught Lesson. Fowler, CA: DataWORKS Educational Research.
MacArthur, Charles A., Steve Graham, and Jill Fitzgerald, editors (2016). Handbook of Writing Research (2nd edition). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Marzano, Robert J. (2009). Designing and Teaching Learning Goals and Objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory.
Marzano, Robert J. (2017). The New Art and Science of Teaching. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
Schmoker, Mike (2018). Focus: Elevating the essentials to radically improve student learning (2nd edition). Alexandria, VA.: ASCD.
Willingham, Daniel T. (2009). Why Don’t Students Like School? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass.
Willingham, Daniel T. (2012). When Can You Trust the Experts? How to tell good science from bad in education. San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass.
Research readings during the creation of Growing Writers
Barshay, Jill (2019). “Scientific evidence on how to teach writing is slim.” The Hechinger Report, Nov. 4, 2019. https://hechingerreport.org/scientific-evidence-on-how-to-teach-writing-is-slim/
Berninger, Virginia (2012). “Evidence-based, developmentally appropriate writing skills K-5: Teaching the orthographic loop of working memory to write letters so developing writers can spell words and express ideas.” Paper presented at Handwriting in the 21st Century? An Educational Summit, Washington, DC, January 23, 2012.
Cutler, Laura, and Graham, Steve (2008). Primary grade writing instruction: a national survey. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(4): 907-919.
Dombeck, Jennifer Lucas, and Al Otaiba, Stephanie (2016). Curriculum-based measurement for beginning writers. Intervention in School and Clinic 51(5), 276-283.
Dinehart, Laura (2015). Handwriting in early childhood education: current research and future implications. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy 15(1): 97-118.
Dinehart, Laura (2015). “Teaching handwriting in early childhood: Brain science shows why we should rescue this fading skill”. District Administration, June 2015, p. 85
Edwards, Lana (2003). Writing instruction in kindergarten: examining an emerging area of research for children with writing and reading difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities 36(2): 136-148.
Fitzpatrick, Paula, Nanho Vander Hart, and Cathryn Cortesa (2013). The influence of instructional variables and task constraints on handwriting performance. The Journal of Educational Research 106:216-234.
Graham, Steve, Michael Hebert, Michael Paige Sandbank, and Karen R. Harris (2016). Assessing the writing achievement of young struggling writers: application of generalizable theory. Learning Disablility Quarterly, 39(2) 72-82.
Graham, Steve (2019). Changing How Writing is Taught. Review of Research in Education, March 2019, Vol. 43, pp. 277-303.
Graham, Steve (2010). “Want to Improve Children’s Writing? Don’t Neglect Their Handwriting.” American Educator, Winter 2009-2010.
Hall, Anna H. “Making Spelling Meaningful: Using Explicit Instruction and Individual Conferencing.” Reading Matters,Vol. 14, Spring 2014.
Harward, Stan, Nancy Peterson, Byran Korth, Jennifer Wimmer, Brad Wilcox, Timothy G. Morrison, Sharon Black, Sue Simmerman, and Linda Pierce (2014). Writing instruction in elementary classrooms: why teachers engage or do not engage students in writing. Literacy Research and Instruction, 53:3, 205-224.
James, Karin H., and Engelhardt, Laura (2012). The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children. Trends in Neuroscience and Education 1(1): 32-42.
Joshi, Malatesha R., Rebecca Trieman, Suzanne Carreker, and Louisa C. Moats. “How Words Cast Their Spell: Spelling is an Integral Part of Learning the Language, Not a Matter of Memorization.” American Educator, Winter 2008-09.
Killian, Shaun. “8 Strategies Robert Marzano and John Hattie Agree On.” Evidence Based Teaching, June 17, 2015, https://www.evidencebasedteaching.org.au/?s=8+strategies
Killian, Shaun. “Top 10 Evidence Based Teaching Strategies.” Evidence Based Teaching, January 2, 2014, https://www.evidencebasedteaching.org.au/author/shaunkillian-id-au/
Killian, Shaun. “Teacher Clarity: A Potent Yet Misunderstood Teaching Strategy.” Evidence Based Teaching, June 16, 2017, https://www.evidencebasedteaching.org.au/teacher-clarity/
Learning Without Tears (2020) “Standards for the Production and Presentation of Writing.” https://www.lwtears.com/resources/writing-keyboarding-standards-grade-level?
Longcamp, Marie, Marie-Therese Zerbato-Poudou, and Jean-Luc Velay (2005). The influence of writing practice on letter recognition in preschool children: A comparison between handwriting and typing. Acta Psychologica 119:67-79
National Association of Colleges and Employers, NACE, (2018). “Employers Want to See These Attributes on Students’ Resumes.” NACE Job Outlook 2019. Dec. 12, 2018, https://www.naceweb.org/talent-acquisition/candidate-selection/employers-want-to-see-these-attributes-on-students-resumes/
National Assessment of Educational Progress, NAEP (2011). NAEP 2011 Writing Framework Scoring Guide.
Pauley, Gayle, Jon Mishra, Kathe Taylor, and Aira Jackson (2020). “English Language Arts Menu of Best Practices and Strategies.” Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 2020.
Picou, Aigner (2019). “Are Schools Making Writing a Priority? New study shows students do not spend enough time writing.” The Learning Agency Lab.
Puranik, Cynthia, Molly Duncan, Hongli Li, and Guo Ying (2020). Exploring the dimensionality of kindergarten written composition. Reading and Writing 33: 2481-2510.
Puranik, Cynthia, Emily Boss, and Shannon Wanless (2019). Relations between self-regulation and early writing: Domain specific or task dependent? Early Childhood Research Quarterly 46 (2019) 228-239.
Puranik, Cynthia, Melissa M. Patchan, Christopher J. Lemons, and Stephanie Al Otaiba (2016). Using peer assisted strategies to teach early writing: results of a pilot study to examine feasibility and promise. Reading and Writing, 30: 25-50.
Santangelo, Tanya (2014). Why is writing so difficult for students with learning disabilities? A narrative review to inform the design of effective instruction. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 12(1), 5-20.
Schwellnus, Heidi, Heather Carnahan, Azadeh Kushki, Helene Polatajko, and Tom Chau (2012). Effect of pencil grasp on the speed and legibility of handwriting in children. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, Nov./Dec. 2012 Vol 66, 718-726.
Simonsen, Flint, and Gunter, Lee (2001). Best practices in spelling instruction: A research summary. Journal of Direct Instruction, Vol. 1, No.2, pp. 97-105.
Tyre, Peg. “The Writing Revolution.” The Atlantic, October 2012
What Works Clearinghouse. “Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers.” Institute of Education Sciences.
Wilson, Leslie Owen (2018). Writing good curriculum – what makes a curriculum document really usable? Professor at the University of Wisconsin shares data from 18 years of graduate student surveys.
Zumbrunn, Sharon, Sarah Marrs, Michael Broda, Eric Ekholm, Morgan DeBusk-Lane, and Lisa Jackson (2019). Toward a more complete understanding of writing enjoyment: a mixed methods study of elementary students. American Educational Research Association Open, 5(2), pp. 1-16.
Writing curricula used for learning and reference:
Bergen, Randee (2008). Teaching Writing in Kindergarten: A structured approach to daily writing that helps every child become a confident, competent writer. New York, NY: Scholastic.
Engelmann, Siegfried (2001). Reasoning and Writing. Columbus, OH: SRA/McGraw-Hill.
Greutman, Heather, OT (2017) “Fine Motor Warm-Up Activities”. www.GrowingHandsOn Kids.com.
Hochman, Judith C. (2009). Teaching Basic Writing Skills: Strategies for Effective Expository Writing Instruction. Longmont, CO: Cambium Learning Sopris.
Moats, Louisa C. (2012). Teaching Beginning Spelling and Writing, K-3 (2nd edition). Longmont, CO: Cambium Learning Sopris.
Olsen, Jan Z., and Knapton, Emily F. (2008). Handwriting Without Tears, 2nd Grade Printing Teacher’s Guide. Cabin John, MD: Handwriting Without Tears.
Olsen, Jan Z., and Knapton, Emily F. (2013). Handwriting Without Tears, Kindergarten Teacher’s Guide (11th edition). Cabin John, MD: Handwriting Without Tears.
Sprick, Marilyn, Lisa Howard, and Shelley V. Jones (2008). Read Well 1 Spelling and Writing Conventions. Longmont, CO: Cambium Learning Sopris.
Sally has 33 years of experience in teaching young children. Since 1999, she has been doing active
research on how to effectively teach writing in grades K-2. The result is an innovative writing
curriculum called Growing Writers. www.growingwriters.org
B.A. Education Goddard College, Plainfield, Vt. 1986
M.A. Early Childhood Pacific Oaks College, Seattle, Wa. 2002
Elementary school teacher, East Olympia Elementary, Tumwater, Washington
(kindergarten, 11 years; first grade, 7 years; second grade, 6 years)
Preschool owner and director, Mulberry School, Olympia, Washington
Olympia Community School (2 years)
Mason-Thurston Headstart (2 years)
Eastside Co-op Preschool (1 year)